16/12/08 Jacobus van Dijk: Het graf van Horemheb

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16/12/08 Jacobus van Dijk: Het graf van Horemheb

Berichtdoor Philip Arrhidaeus » Ma Feb 08, 2010 3:20 pm

Op 06/10/08 schreef ik:

13de Jan Quaegebeurlezing

Op dinsdag 16 december 2008 wordt ter nagedachtenis van Professor Jan Quaegebeur een lezing gehouden door Dr. Jacobus van Dijk:

'Nieuwe ontdekkingen in het graf van Horemheb in het Dal der Koningen'

Om 20:00 uur in het
auditorium Zeger Van Hee,
College De Valk,
Tiensestraat 41,
3000 Leuven.
Laatst gewijzigd door Philip Arrhidaeus op Ma Feb 08, 2010 3:32 pm, in totaal 1 keer gewijzigd.
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Berichtdoor Philip Arrhidaeus » Ma Feb 08, 2010 3:22 pm

Op 07/10/08 schreef Rozette:

UK 07 | 11 oktober 2007 | Jaargang 37

The wine of Horemheb

Egyptologist Dr Jaap van Dijk is preparing for his third season of excavation in the Egyptian Valley of the Kings, the burial site of the pharaohs and the place where the English archaeologist Howard Carter found the tomb of Tutankhamen in 1922.

By Ernst Arbouw

Is there anything left for archaeologists to do in Egypt? Yes there is, says Egyptologist Dr Jaap van Dijk. This autumn he’ll be excavating in the tomb of Pharaoh Horemheb, the successor to the famous Pharaoh Tutankhamen. And there’s more than enough interesting stuff to be found.
“The tomb had already been plundered in ancient times, and it was rediscovered in 1908 by an American businessman and amateur archaeologist, Theodore Davis”, Van Dijk says. “Davis was more or less the modern-day equivalent of a tomb robber. All the remaining artefacts were taken out of the tomb in no more than a few weeks and the excavation work was done in a very sloppy way.”
Van Dijk, his colleague Professor Geoffrey Martin from Cambridge and their Egyptian staff of about 35 workers have spent two seasons going through the rubble and debris which was left in the tomb. They intend to finish their project this autumn. “The tomb was opened to the public in the mid-twentieth century. To allow access, the rubble was dumped at the back of the burial chamber and in the well shaft, a deep pit about a third of the way along the 100 metre-long corridor leading from the entrance to the burial chamber.”
Over the last two years the researchers have found loads of interesting objects in the rubble. “When we started, the well shaft – which measures about four by four metres – was three metres deep, it’s now seven metres deep and we hope to dig even further”, says Van Dijk. He estimates that they’ve shifted about seventy to eighty cubic metres of rocks and debris so far. “All by hand, using baskets and ropes.”
Interesting finds include broken bits of pottery wine jars. Inscriptions on the sherds – much like present-day wine labels – include the year the wine was made and the vineyard from where it originated. But there’s an important twist, Van Dijk explains. The Egyptian calendar started counting from zero every time a new Pharaoh was crowned. This makes it very hard to compile a rock-solid chronology of events in ancient Egypt, but in this case the dates on the pottery sherds provide important clues. “Wine had a very limited storage life and the wine jars you find in tombs are usually from the last, or perhaps the last two harvests. In the tomb of Horemheb there are no wine labels with a higher date than year fourteen of his reign, which makes it highly likely that he died before the harvest of year fifteen.” As yet, many scholars assume Horemheb reigned for over 28 years.
The excavations in the Valley of Kings are all the more interesting because Horemheb’s tomb wasn’t finished when he was buried. “It’s like a time capsule, showing all stages of tomb decoration”, says Van Dijk. It’s also the earliest royal tomb to contain scenes and hieroglyphic inscriptions carved in relief, which makes it extra special.
The entrance to Horemheb’s tomb is fifty metres from the entrance to the tomb of Tutankhamen. How does Van Dijk feel about working in the midst of thousands of tourists. “Well, you don’t notice them once you’re at work inside the tomb, but there’s a small outdoor corridor where we sieve through the rubble where tourists keep peeking over the wall. I once put up a small sign saying ‘Please don’t feed the archaeologists.’ I heard that being translated into some twenty languages.”


The tomb of Horemheb KV57 was re-excavated by The Cambridge Expedition to the Valley of the Kings.

Dr. Jacobus van Djik

During three short seasons of work in 2006 and 2007 the Cambridge Expedition to the Valley of the Kings under the direction of finally cleared the tomb completely, with unexpected but very interesting results.In the Well Room a considerable quantity of pottery sherds were discovered which turned out to belong almost without exception to a single type of vessel, the well-known amphora with pointed bottom, round shoulders and two vertically placed handles commonly used for the storage of wine at the end of the Eighteenth Dynasty and the Ramesside period. More than 200 of these sherds proved to be inscribed with hieratic dockets. These consistently mention Year 13 of Horemheb for ordinary wine and Year 14 for good quality wine. The quantity and consistency of these labels would seem to indicate that Horemheb was buried in his Year 14 or at least before the wine harvest of his Year 15 at the very latest. Such a date would agree much better with the unfinished state of the tomb, which has always been difficult to explain if Horemheb, as many Egyptologists still believe, reigned for about 27 or 28 years.

Quote :
Re-excavating KV 57 (Horemheb) in the Valley of the Kings

Geoffrey T. Martin

The tomb was discovered in 1908 by THEODORE M. DAVIS and was cleared under the supervision of Edward Ayrton, the results being published in The Tombs of Harmhabi and Touatânkhamanou (1912). This volume is clearly partial. There is, for instance, no mention of pottery, and many objects are not fully published or illustrated. Some problems were unsolved until recently, including the status of the Wall Shaft inside the tomb: there was no certainty that Davis had cleared it completely. In the large undecorated chamber behind the sarcophagus hall a huge mound of debris awaited investigation. It seemed partly, at least, to consist of material deposited there by the excavators and those involved in repairing and conserving the monument at the time of the discovery and in more recent years. A tomb of such magnitude and importance clearly needed further work to ensure that all the evidence was available for a complete publication of the artefacts and an accurate section of the shaft. The sarcophagus, too, still demanded attention: skeletal material and other debris remained inside, and the lid, repaired and replaced in position after the discovery in 1908, was wrongly oriented.
The Cambridge Expedition to the Valley of the Kings was granted permission in 2005 to carry out the projects, and after three short seasons of work the monument is now entirely free of debris. The Well Shaft proved to have been excavated fully in 1908, but had then been used as a dump for material excavated further inside the tomb. Quantities of wine amphorae sherds, many with hieratic dockets, came to light, as well as a few pieces of funerary equipment such as copper shabti, baskets and hoes. Crucially, a number of the jar dockets bear year dates 13 and 14 of Horemheb, hich will prove vital in establishing the actual length of his reign, hitherto a controversial matter. (Dr. Jacobus van Djik, who has recorded and analysed this material, will report on this interesting discovery). The debris in the room behind the sarcophagus hall revealed many fragments of the original tomb equipment overlooked or rejected by the earlier excavators, including fine glass inlays from a Mehet-weret couch, a complete example of which was found in Tutankhamun’s tomb. All this new evidence, in conjunction with the objects in the Cairo Museum and elsewhere, will enable a complete study of the equipment and skeletal material to be carried out, to compare and contrast with the near-contemporary deposit from the tomb of Tutankhamun.

Source :
Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists
University of the Aegean
Rhodes, 22-29 May 2008
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Berichtdoor Philip Arrhidaeus » Ma Feb 08, 2010 3:28 pm

Op 17/12/08 schreef ik:

Dr. van Dijk lijkt me een rustig mens.

Zo was ook zijn lezing ... en zeer duidelijk.

Rozette schreef al hierboven:
The tomb had already been plundered in ancient times, and it was rediscovered in 1908 by an American businessman and amateur archaeologist, Theodore Davis”, Van Dijk says.

In de lezing werd gezegd dat er inderdaad graffiti van in de jaren '80 van de negentiende eeuw in de tombe gevonden is, ergens op een plafond dacht ik.

En het belangrijke gebroken aardewerk werd getoond, waaruit bleek wat ook hierboven in het bericht van Rozette al stond: dat er hoogstwaarschijnlijk geen latere data gevonden zijn dan jaar 14 op de wijnkruiken uit de putschacht.

Ik schreef in een ander bericht:

Er bestaat een Ramessiedische tekst waarin jaar 59 van Horemheb vermeld wordt:

Misschien moet hier heel de Amarnaperiode in gezien worden, dus:
- 17 voor Echnaton (er bestaan wijn-labels dacht ik als bewijs voor tenminste jaar 17)
- 1 voor Smenkhare (wijn-label)
- 10 voor Toetanchamon (damn good wine, again )
- 4 voor Eje
- 27 voor Horemheb (er bestaat een tekst met vermelding van regeringsjaar 27 voor Horemheb, maar wordt dit ook niet gezien als mogelijk uit de tijd van Ramses II?)

De Ramessiedische tekst waar jaar 59 voorkomt zou al helemaal verkeerd zijn ... kan verkeerd overgenomen zijn door de schrijver van dienst.
De andere tekst waar jaar 27 vermeld wordt verwijst naar een transport van een beeld, maar niet expliciet naar regeringsjaren van Horemheb zelf, wanneer ik het goed begrepen heb.

Dus jaar 14 - of begin jaar 15 - zou voorlopig als overlijdensjaar moeten beschouwd worden voor Horemheb.

Er werden heel mooie foto's getoond uit KV57 waar duidelijk de verschillende stadia te zien waren vanaf de monochrome tekeningen op de plaaster tot de afwerking van de gekleurde hoogreliëfs op de wanden van de tombe.

Wat ik ook nog niet wist is dat in de tombe van Horemheb in Saqqara er voor de eerste ingangspyloon een voorhof gevonden is dat duidelijk bij de tempeltombe zelf hoort.

Blij dat er na de lezing een gelegenheid tot iets te drinken was, waarbij ik heel wat mensen even vlug gedag heb kunnen zeggen. Toch blijf ik het gevoel hebben me soms een beetje onbehouwen te gedragen in aanwezigheid van zoveel kennis. :oops:

Vandaag - 17/12 - is er een tweede lezing in Leuven die ik graag had bijgewoond, maar het zal me niet lukken. :(

Noot Philip 08/02/10: Ex Oriente Lux verzorgde in Leuven een lezing door Jacobus van Dijk 'Het mensenoffer in het Oude Egypte en in Nubië'.
http://filipvervloesem.be/eol/index.php ... &Itemid=41
En zie: viewtopic.php?t=1726&mforum
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